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Saturday, May 22
 

9:00am EDT

Nature & Environmental Sciences - Oral Presentations 1
Presentations
 
Place-Based Learning through a Proxy – Variations in the Perceived Benefits of a Virtual Tour
Jan Oliver Wallgrün(1), Eric Knapp(2), Alan Taylor(3), Alexander Klippel(3), Jiayan Zhao(3), Pejman Sajjadi(3)
1: Independent Researcher; 2: US Forest Service; 3: Penn State University
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Place-based and fieldwork learning play a key role in higher education in environmental sciences and other geo-spatial disciplines. We report on a study in which we evaluated a web-based virtual tour application for teaching natural resource management in fire-prone western forests in two undergraduate classes. The virtual tour uses 360°-image-based virtual scenes and pre-recorded audio commentary by a domain expert to lead participants through the Stanislaus-Tuolumne Experimental Forest where forest treatments were implemented to reduce fire hazard. We present results from assessing students’ overall perception of the virtual tour, their views towards its application in undergraduate education, and their feedback for improving the design of future virtual tours. Furthermore, we discuss the collected data from the perspective of gender differences and differences in familiarity with the topic of the tour.
 
 
Spatial Learning with Extended Reality - A Review of User Studies
Bing Liu(1), Linfang Ding(2), Liqiu Meng(1)
1: Chair of Cartography, Technical University of Munich, Germany; 2: KRDB Research Centre, Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, Italy
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Spatial learning is a process of acquiring spatial knowledge and the foundation of our daily interactions with the living environment. Extended reality (XR) has been widely used in spatial learning research for decades with two representative types - Virtual reality (VR) and Augmented reality (AR). VR is often used to understand spatial learning behavior and spatial cognition process, and AR has great potential to assist spatial learning in real world. This short paper reviews the studies on the deployment of VR and AR to evaluate or assist spatial learning. We summarize the devices, technologies and analysis methods used, and identify factors that need to be considered in experimental design. Our work serves as a reference for new researchers who intend to design further user studies on spatial learning with VR and AR technologies.

Presenters
JZ

Jiayan Zhao

Postdoctoral Researcher, The Pennsylvania State University
avatar for Bing Liu

Bing Liu

Ph.D. Candidate, Technical University of Munich
In her Ph.D. study, Bing focuses on spatial learning during MR-based navigation. She is also experienced in using eye-tracking and fMRI in spatial ability and cognition research.


Saturday May 22, 2021 9:00am - 10:00am EDT
Circle of Scholars Assembly Hall iLRN Virtual Campus, powered by Virbela
 
Tuesday, May 25
 

7:00am EDT

Assessment & Evaluation - Oral Presentations 1
Presentations
 
An Academic Conference In Virtual Reality? – Evaluation Of A SocialVR Conference
Miriam Mulders(1), Raphael Zender(2)
1: University of Duisburg Essen, Germany; 2: University of Potsdam, Germany
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One of the first academic conferences in head-mounted display (HMD)-based Social Virtual Reality (SocialVR) was realized. The conference aims to support knowledge acquisition and informal exchange regarding the technology SocialVR itself and the use of Virtual and Augmented Reality technologies (VR/AR) in vocational education. The paper presents results of an explorative study of 75 conference participants. Results indicate that SocialVR is generally suited to host an academic conference. In some areas, it seems inferior or equivalent to other digital formats or face-to-face events. In other areas, it offers added value. Further research is needed to take advantage of these positive effects.
 
 
Evaluation Design Methodology for an AR App for English Literacy Skills
Jennifer Tiede(1), Farzin Matin(2), Rita Treacy(3), Silke Grafe(1), Eleni Mangina(2)
1: University of Würzburg, Germany; 2: University College Dublin, Ireland; 3: Wordsworthlearning, Ireland
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Augmented Reality (AR) is a powerful tool for supporting students’ learning processes, but sound research findings regarding the systematic evaluation of AR-enhanced teaching and learning processes are scarce especially with regards to literacy attainment. Hence, against the background of a systematic literature review the evaluation approach in the European H2020 ARETE project is introduced. The effects of Augmented Reality (AR) on fourth to sixth grade primary school students’ literacy skills acquisition are assessed. The evaluation approach has been designed systematically to respond to important research desiderata such as the development of multimethod and multi-perspective evaluation approaches combining different target groups and measurements. The aim of this paper is the design clarification and the provision of the research desideratum of evaluation design and metrics that are suitable for systematically assessing students’ literacy attainment when utilising AR.
 
 
Using Support Vector Machine on EEG Signals for College Students' Immersive Learning Evaluation
Boxin Wan(1,2), Wenshan Huang(1), Ludi Bai(1,2), Junqi Guo(1,2)
1: School of Artificial Intelligence,Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China; 2: Center for Big Data Mining & Knowledge Engineering,Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China
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Conventional methods such as questionnaires and scales to evaluate learners’ learning immersion are influenced by individuals’ subjective factors. The non-synchronism between the learning state and after-learning investigation also reduces the accuracy. We propose a new method to evaluate learners’ learning immersion based on electroencephalogram (EEG) and support vector machine (SVM). We construct 2 learning scenarios to induce immersive senses: VR video learning for high-level immersion and online English word learning for low-level immersion. To distinguish two immersion levels, students' EEGs are collected. After entering their attention score, relaxation score, the synchronization rate between the 2 scores, high alpha and low beta wave into SVM model, the precision accuracy reaches 87.80%. Taken the classified results and the participants’ self-reports together, we find VR devices can create a more immersive environment which improves learners’ learning effect. Our findings provide evidence supporting the feasibility of predicting learning immersion levels by physiological recordings.

Presenters
avatar for Silke Grafe

Silke Grafe

Professor, University of Würzburg
avatar for Raphael Zender

Raphael Zender

University of Potsdam
I am a computer science researcher at the University of Potsdam with an interdisciplinary focus on teaching and learning with virtual and augmented reality (VR/AR) technologies. I lead the VR/AR-related research projects at the Chair of Complex Multimedia Application Architectures... Read More →
avatar for Boxin Wan

Boxin Wan

Beijing Normal University
avatar for Miriam Mulders

Miriam Mulders

Research Assistant, University of Duisburg Essen
Hey, my name is Miriam Mulders. I am a research assistant at the Learning Lab/University of Duisburg-Essen/Germany. I am involved in teaching and learning in VR, for example in training as a vehicle painter.
avatar for Jennifer Tiede

Jennifer Tiede

Research Fellow, University of Würzburg
I specialize in research on media-related educational competencies of preservice teachers and teacher educators, in the benefits and challenges of AR and VR in education, and in the evaluation of pedagogical interventions on an international level. I am also strongly interested in... Read More →


Tuesday May 25, 2021 7:00am - 8:00am EDT
Circle of Scholars Assembly Hall iLRN Virtual Campus, powered by Virbela
 
Tuesday, June 1
 

8:00am EDT

Poster Session - Synapse VR: Catalyzing Collaboration through Immersive Learning
Synapse VR: Catalyzing Collaboration through Immersive Learning
Cat Flynn, Seth Corrigan, Faby Gagne
Watch the presentation video



Presenters
SC

Seth Corrigan

Senior Director of Research and Development, Southern New Hampshire University


Tuesday June 1, 2021 8:00am - 9:00am EDT
Expo & Convention Center iLRN Virtual Campus, powered by Virbela

8:00am EDT

Poster Session 2
Please pardon our dust as we replaced this one Sched session with 29 individual sessions.  Please visit the booths in the Expo Hall!



Tuesday June 1, 2021 8:00am - 9:00am EDT
Expo & Convention Center iLRN Virtual Campus, powered by Virbela

9:00am EDT

Doctoral Colloquium 1
Presentations

Pandemic pirouettes: AR Ballet Exploring Data Ethics for the Computing Classroom
Genevieve Smith-Nunes(1), Alex Shaw(2)
1: University of Cambridge, United Kingdom; 2: Glaston Bridge Software
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This Doctoral Colloquium paper explores the pivot from in-person to virtual and digital means in developing an Augment Reality (AR) classical ballet experience due to Covid-19. This work-in-progress explores novel teaching and learning approaches to the computing concepts of data transmission, signal processing, and therefore necessarily data ethics through classical ballet and bio-metric data the body and brain waves as data artefacts, the data ethics implications of bio-metrics. Innovative approaches to subject knowledge, programming competency, and probing engender thinking of the field of computing if any. This study uses the emergent methodology of AgileDBR, a hybrid of design-based research (DBR) and Agile developed as part of author one's Ph.D.

Designing VR Environments For Distance Learning
Richard Ngu Leubou(1,2), Benoit Crespin(1), Marc Trestini(2)
1: XLIM UMR CNRS 7252, University of Limoges, France; 2: LISEC UR 2310, University of Strasbourg, France
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Virtual reality takes learner participation to a higher level of interaction, offering a real experience and a new way to acquire real-world in a distance learning device. Designing VR environments for distance learning leads to an examination of the technical and methodological choices to ensure a useful, usable and efficient tool. Our work is based on the design approaches and recommendations from existing works related to VR and/or distance learning, in order to formalize the design of collaborative VR environments specifically dedicated to distance learning.

A Qualitative Study to Explore the Use of Augmented Reality as Performance Support in Industries
Yao Huang
Florida State University, United States of America
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When augmented reality (AR) technology is used in the learning and development field, it is often viewed from a training perspective. Human Performance Technology (HPT) professionals start to explore the potential of adopting AR on mobile devices as a performance support tool to help field workers across industries. This paper captures the adoption of how mobile AR is used in organizations to address performance issues. The study will use the Critical Incident Technique (CIT) to interview ten organizations. The purpose is to uncover the critical events on why mobile AR is considered an appropriate intervention, what benefits and challenges the organizations encounter, what processes are followed when designing and implementing mobile AR, and what types and functions of mobile AR are used to assist job performance.

Immersive Media in Remote Schooling: “I was surprised at how engaged I was”
Eileen McGivney
Harvard University, United States of America
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With protracted school closures forcing young people to learn remotely, schools are in urgent need of innovative approaches that can keep students engaged in their education and support their learning. Immersive technologies like virtual reality (VR) and 360-degree videos have been shown to increase motivation to learn and student focus, but little is known about their effectiveness in a remote schooling model. This paper reports preliminary results of a mixed methods case study using 360-videos and Google Cardboard viewers in remote high school engineering classes. The students’ surveys and interviews indicate they find online learning difficult, but that 360-videos are more engaging than other instructional media and may be particularly useful for facilitating observational learning.

VeRdict: Imbuing VR Language Learning Applications with Dictionary Functionality
Louis Lecailliez, Noel H. Vincent
Kyoto University, Japan
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As VR hardware becomes increasingly performant and accessible, interest has grown among researchers regarding how to leverage its immersive qualities in an educational context. Immersion, however, often comes at the expense of multitasking functionality and use of supplementary learning resources. This presents an issue for language learners, who upon encountering an unfamiliar word in VR, may have to remove their goggles or switch applications to consult a dictionary. Thus, in order to make dictionary use more immersive and convenient for learners, we present VeRdict, a dictionary extension for VR learning applications that enables dictionary searches from directly within an application using motion controls. Its client-server architecture allows for the delivery of lexicographic content augmented with optional 3D object data, which can be used to display dictionary entries and accompanying 3D visuals. The dictionary can be used to perform manual vocabulary searches using a virtual keyboard, or be used through labels applied to elements within the virtual scene. Additionally, 3D objects loaded from the dictionary server can be used as virtual `props'—unlocking new gesture-based communicative possibilities.

Presenters
NH

Noel H. Vincent

PhD Student, Kyoto University
avatar for Genevieve Smith-Nunes

Genevieve Smith-Nunes

Ph.D. Candidate, University of Cambridge
Reimagining computing science education and data ethics through biometric data and classical ballet.
avatar for Benoit Crespin

Benoit Crespin

University of Limoges
Benoit Crespin is an assistant professor in Computer Science at the University of Limoges. His research interests include computer graphics, VR environments, GPU computing and computational fluid dynamics.
avatar for Richard Ngu Leubou

Richard Ngu Leubou

PhD Student, University of Limoges
avatar for Yao Huang

Yao Huang

Doctoral Candidate, Florida State University
Yao Huang is currently a doctoral candidate in the Instructional Systems and Learning Technologies program at Florida State University. Yao’s research focuses on Human Performance Improvement, especially how mobile and augmented reality technologies enhance performance support in... Read More →
avatar for Eileen McGivney

Eileen McGivney

Ph.D. Student, Harvard University


Tuesday June 1, 2021 9:00am - 10:00am EDT
Graduate Student Lounge & Meeting Room iLRN Virtual Campus, powered by Virbela
 
Wednesday, June 2
 

7:00am EDT

Galleries, Libraries, Archives, & Museums - Oral Presentations 1
Presentations

Great Paintings in Fully Immersive Virtual Reality
Hubert Cecotti
California State University, Fresno, United States of America
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Large collections of paintings have been digitized by museums (e.g. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New-York, USA) and companies such as Google. These resources can be provided to a wide audience through virtual reality as an instructional means to fully convey the size and the magnificence of these paintings. Accessing these resources in an immersive virtual environment can be beneficial to all the students who live far away from museums. In addition, making these resources available to a wide audience answers a current need related to the closure of many museums, because of the Covid-19 pandemic. This paper provides a description of a fully immersive virtual reality museum where paintings can be accessed in two modes: individually (one painting per room), or in galleries (multiple paintings in a room) that are generated procedurally. More importantly, the proposed application provides a means for museums and art instructors to insert their own collections of paintings. Such an approach aims at improving the transition of high resolution images of paintings into art galleries in virtual reality. The application has been deployed on the Steam platform, is available for free, and has been evaluated by users, suggesting a high interest for such an application.


Alternative Design For An Interactive Exhibit Learning In Museums: How Does User Experience Differ Across Different Technologies-VR, Tangible, And Gesture
Pornphan Phichai(1), Julie Williamson(2), Matthew Barr(3)
1: School of Computing Science, University of Glasgow, United Kingdom; 2: School of Computing Science, University of Glasgow, United Kingdom; 3: School of Computing Science, University of Glasgow, United Kingdom
Watch the presentation video

This paper investigates three types of user interfaces: VR, Gesture-based interface, and Tangible-based interface. We examine how user experience differs across different technology and what are the factors that make the experience difference. To find the answer we conduct an empirical study, in which we create three different interactive exhibits that apply these technologies to deliver the same scientific content about biotoxin in nature. The study uses a mixed-method, qualitative and quantitative, and measures two factors. First, user experience is measured by six dimensions of user experience: attractiveness, perspicuity, efficiency, dependability, simulation, and novelty. Second, attention holding power is measured by playing time. The study uses the semi-structured interview to emphasize the issue and learning media of each interface. Thirty-one subjects joined the study. The statistical results shows that there are significantly different user experiences when using a different type of interface. There are difference across five user experience dimensions, only novelty is relatively unchanged. Difference are primarily between VR and Gesture, and Tangible and Gesture. There is no significant difference in holding power between the three types of interface. The statistical analysis of result and interview feedback from participants suggest six aspects to focus on when choosing an alternative interface to create a new interactive exhibit: the novelty, user-friendly, precision of the input device, task and device design, multimodal of feedback, and quality of text in VR.


Communal Spaces As Ludic Resources Of Learning With Augmented Reality And Board Games
Kenneth Y. T. Lim(1), Yuk Yi Wong(2), Ahmed Hazyl Hilmy(1)
1: National Institute of Education, Singapore; 2: St Joseph's Institution, Singapore
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This paper describes a learning activity using Augmented Reality (AR) which seeks to take advantage of the potential for learning about history and culture through exploration. This is represented by a garden in a university campus that affords visitors a scaffolded experience comprising a game-driven narrative in which visitors to the garden may assume the roles of different protagonists. In addition, we also sought to design a paper-based board-game for visitors who are not yet able to visit the garden in person. Both aspects of the learning activity – namely, the game-driven narratives in the actual garden as well as in the board-game equivalent – were piloted in December 2020. The study suggests that a combination of Augmented Reality, storyline and role-play could increase the probability of encounters with spontaneous elements in learners’ local environments that encourage learning.

Presenters
avatar for Kenneth Y. T. Lim

Kenneth Y. T. Lim

Research Scientist, National Institute of Education
i am interested in the design of learning environments which foreground the intuitions of learners
avatar for Hubert Cecotti

Hubert Cecotti

Assistant Professor, Fresno State
avatar for Pornphan Phichai

Pornphan Phichai

PhD Student, University of Glasgow
I am a third-year PhD student in Computing Science at the School of Computing Science, the University of Glasgow, UK.  I am interested in novel technologies on how to bring them to create a new interactive interface for museums and public use. I am currently doing research in HCI... Read More →


Wednesday June 2, 2021 7:00am - 8:00am EDT
Circle of Scholars Assembly Hall iLRN Virtual Campus, powered by Virbela
 
Friday, June 4
 

7:00am EDT

Workforce Development & Industry Training - Oral Presentations 1
Presentations

Look at It This Way: A Comparison of Metaphors for Directing the User's Gaze in eXtended Reality Training Systems
Filippo Gabriele Pratticò, Federico De Lorenzis, Fabrizio Lamberti
Politecnico di Torino, Italy
Watch the presentation video​​​

Interest is raising around extended reality training systems (XRTSs), which started to be considered as a credible option to train companies' workforce. Even though there is a growing body of literature on best practices and techniques to be adopted for teaching individuals how to perform a variety of operations (e.g., for assembly and maintenance procedures), there are also training situations which have gone mostly unexplored yet. In this paper, we propose and evaluate three different metaphors to face the key challenges associated with training procedures involving parallax-dependent tasks, i.e., tasks in which the instructor needs to make the trainee reach a target observation point and guide his/her attention towards a given point of interest at the same time. Effects observed through a user study that was run in a testbed environment indicated that metaphors based on 3D avatars and frustum visualization can provide important advantages over video-based techniques.


Asymmetrical Game Design Approaches Solve Didactic Problems in VR Engineer Trainings
Ulrike Meyer(1), Jonathan Becker(1), Thomas Müller(2), André Jeworutzki(1), Susanne Draheim(1), Kai von Luck(1)
1: University of Applied Sciences Hamburg, Germany; 2: EnBW
Watch the presentation video​​​

The use of VR in training groups for wind turbine engineers can cause didactic and practical problems. Integrating the whole group into the lesson and retaining attention and motivation while only one or two trainees wear a VR head mounted display (HMD) can be challenging for the trainer. Whereas VR HMDs isolate the users, engineering on wind turbines is a group effort. The problem is exacerbated when trainees need to use remote access to participate in the lesson, as can be the case under pandemic restrictions. We propose to use methods from asymmetrical game design and constructivist didactics to integrate participants without VR headsets into VR trainings for engineers.


Immersive Virtual Soft Skills Learning and Training of Employees: A Scoping Review
Tone Lise Dahl
SINTEF AS, Norway
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Soft skills training is considered important for employees to be successful at work. Several companies are offering immersive virtual soft skills training with head-mounted displays. The main contribution of this paper is to provide an overview of the research literature within the field of using immersive virtual soft skills learning and training of employees. The results of this preliminary scoping review show that there is a lack of research literature and empirical studies within this topic.

Presenters
UM

Uli Meyer

VR Developer, Hamburg University of Applied Sciences
avatar for F. Gabriele Pratticò

F. Gabriele Pratticò

PhD Student, Politecnico di Torino
avatar for Tone Lise Dahl

Tone Lise Dahl

Research Scientist, SINTEF
A researcher within the field of Technology-Enhanced Learning (TEL), Extended Realities (VR,AR,MR), Digital Innovation and Knowledge Management at SINTEF Digital in Norway.


Friday June 4, 2021 7:00am - 8:00am EDT
Circle of Scholars Assembly Hall iLRN Virtual Campus, powered by Virbela
 
Tuesday, June 8
 

7:00am EDT

Basic Research & Theory - Oral Presentations 7
Presentations

Getting there? Together. Cultural Framing of Augmented and Virtual Reality for Art Education
Regina Maria Bäck(1), Rainer Wenrich(1), Birgit Dorner(2)
1: Katholische Universität Eichstätt-Ingolstadt; 2: Katholische Stiftungshochschule München
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Informal learning contexts of creating and exploring artefacts through Augmented Reality (AR) and Virtual Reality (VR) are increasingly common. Nevertheless, insights on art educators` perspectives on potential for conceptualization and classroom implementation are scarce. In this study, both art educators a artists share their perspectives on a variety of AR/VR applications, from creating in multiplayer mode to exploring artefacts and loci in SocialVR.
Overall, twenty art educators were exploring a selection of AR/VR applications. The data was collected during online workshops with art teachers coming from diverse backgrounds (elementary and secondary school, special education). Interviews were conducted with six media artists, including pioneers of AR/VR art. Grounded Theory Methodology, specifically Situational Analysis as well as Visual Grounded Theory Methodology was applied. Results highlight media cultural perspectives in proximity and distance to AR/VR related "worlds", by classifying different journeys from first encounter to conceptualization and implementation.


Mobile Augmented Reality Applications in Teaching: A Proposed Technology Acceptance Model
George Koutromanos(1), Tassos A. Mikropoulos(2)
1: National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece; 2: University of Ioannina, Greece
Watch the presentation video​​​

This study proposed MARAM, a mobile augmented reality acceptance model that determines the factors that affect teachers’ intention to use AR applications in their teaching. MARAM extends TAM by adding the variables of perceived relative advantage, perceived enjoyment, facilitating conditions, and mobile self – efficacy. MARAM was tested in a pilot empirical study with 127 teachers who used educational mobile AR applications and developed their own ones. The results of regression analysis showed that MARAM can predict a satisfactory percentage of the variance in teachers’ intention, attitude, perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use. Attitude, perceived usefulness, and facilitating conditions affected intention. Both perceived usefulness and perceived enjoyment affected attitude. Furthermore, perceived relative advantage and perceived enjoyment affected perceived usefulness. In addition, mobile self-efficacy and facilitating conditions affected perceived ease of use. However, perceived ease of use did not have any effect on attitude and perceived usefulness. MARAM could serve as the basis for future studies on teachers’ acceptance of mobile AR applications and be expanded through the addition of other variables.

Presenters
avatar for Regina Maria Bäck

Regina Maria Bäck

Ph.D. Candidate, KU / KSH
My research focusses on the potential and media cultural framing of XR in art educational contexts. Looking forward for exchange and inspiration when it comes to quality criteria also thinking of students, from creative potential to data protection.
avatar for George Koutromanos

George Koutromanos

Assistant Professor in ICT in Education, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens



Tuesday June 8, 2021 7:00am - 8:00am EDT
Circle of Scholars Assembly Hall iLRN Virtual Campus, powered by Virbela